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Glossary E

Edema - collection of fluid in the tissues of a part of the body. Diabetics often have edemic feet due to the impaired circulation in them. Diuretics are usually prescribed by your doctor.

Electromyography EMG – is a test that is used to diagnose neuropathy and check for nerve damage. It uses electrodes to measure speed of nerve signal transmission. Damaged nerves have characteristic changes in transmission.

Emergency medical identification – ID Cards, bracelets, talisman necklaces with a written message used by people with diabetes or other medical problems to alert others in case of a medical emergency such as coma.

Endocrine glands -  Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct. The main endocrine glands include the pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, and adrenal glands.

Endocrinologist - a physician with special training in the operation and diseases of the endocrine system (ie, the endocrine glands and tissues). Called a diabeties consultant in the UK.

Endogenous - Grown or made inside the body. Insulin made by a person's own pancreas is endogenous insulin. Insulin that is supplied from outside the body (ie, injected or otherwise supplied) is exogenous.

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) - The final phase of many kidney diseases; treated by dialysis or kidney transplantation. See also: Dialysis; nephropathy.

Enzymes - proteins which have the effect of greatly increasing the reaction rate of specific chemical reactions. Reaction rates are controlled by activation energies specific to particular reactions, and enzymes have the effect of lowering the activation energy. In general enzymes are chemicals which are not consumed by the reaction. In that sense, they are catalysts.



Epidemiology -  is the study of patterns of health and illness and associated factors at the population level. It is the cornerstone method of public health research, and helps inform evidence-based medicine for identifying risk factors for disease and determining optimal treatment approaches to clinical practice and for preventative medicine. For instance, the epidemiology of diabetes shows that it is not spread by infection.

Etiology -  is a term mainly used in medicine, where it is the science that deals with the causes or origin of disease, the factors which produce or predispose toward a certain disease or disorder. The etiology of Type 1 diabetes is somewhat understood (it is an externally triggered auto-immune disease) while the etiology of Type 2 diabetes is currently unknown, though its epidemiology has extablished a strong genetic component.

Euglycemia – is the  normal level of glucose in the blood.

Exchange lists - A grouping of foods by type to provide a rough way to help people on special diets keep to the diet. Each group lists food in serving sizes. A person can exchange, trade, or substitute a food serving in one group for another food serving in the same group as they have approximately equivalent amounts of a particular nutrient. You can use the American Dietetic Association food exchange lists to check out serving sizes for each group of foods and to see what other food choices are available for each group of foods.The usual lists classify foods in six groups: (1) starch/bread, (2) meat, (3) vegetables, (4) fruit, (5) milk, and (6) fats. Within a food group, each serving has about the same amount of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and calories.

Exogenous - from the Greek words "exo" and "genis", meaning "outside" and "generated".  Grown or made outside the body; for instance, insulin made from pork or beef pancreas is exogenous insulin for people. Contrast endogenous.




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